Art rock (alternatively spelled art-rock) is a subgenre of rock music that originated in the United Kingdom in the 1960s, with influences from art, avant-garde, and classical music. The first usage of the term, according to Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary, was in 1968. Influenced by the work of The Beatles, most notably their album Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band, art rock was a form of music which wanted to "extend the limits of rock & roll", and opted for a more experimental and conceptual outlook on music. Art rock took influences from several genres, notably classical music, yet also jazz in later compositions. Art rock, due to its classical influences and experimental nature, has often been used synonymously with progressive rock; nevertheless, there are differences between the genres, with progressive putting a greater emphasis on symphony and melody, whilst the former on avant-garde and "novel sonic structure". Art rock, as a term, can also be used to refer to either classically-driven rock, or a progressive rock-folk fusion, making it an eclectic genre. Common characteristics of art rock include album-oriented music divided into compositions rather than songs, with usually complicated and long instrumental sections, symphonic orchestration, and an experimental style. Art rock music was traditionally used within the context of concept records, and its lyrical themes tended to be "imaginative", philosophical, and politically-oriented.
ROCK & ROLL
Rock and roll (often written as rock & roll or rock 'n' roll) is a genre of popular music that originated and evolved in the United States during the late 1940s and early 1950s, primarily from a combination of African American blues, country, jazz, and gospel music. Though elements of rock and roll can be heard in country records of the 1930s, and in blues records from the 1920s, rock and roll did not acquire its name until the 1950s.
The term "rock and roll" now has at least two different meanings, both in common usage. The American Heritage Dictionary and the Merriam-Webster Dictionary both define rock and roll as synonymous with rock music. Encyclopædia Britannica, on the other hand, regards it as the music that originated in the mid-1950s and later developed "into the more encompassing international style known as rock music". For the purpose of differentiation, this article uses the second definition.
In the earliest rock and roll styles of the late 1940s and early 1950s, either the piano or saxophone was often the lead instrument, but these were generally replaced or supplemented by guitar in the middle to late 1950s. The beat is essentially a blues rhythm with an accentuated backbeat, the latter almost always provided by a snare drum. Classic rock and roll is usually played with one or two electric guitars (one lead, one rhythm), a string bass or (after the mid-1950s) an electric bass guitar, and a drum kit.
Rockabilly is one of the earliest styles of rock and roll music, dating to the early 1950s.
The term "rockabilly" is a portmanteau of "rock" (from "rock 'n' roll") and "hillbilly", the latter a reference to the country music (often called "hillbilly music" in the 1940s and 1950s) that contributed strongly to the style's development. Other important influences on rockabilly include western swing, boogie woogie, and rhythm and blues. While there are notable exceptions, its origins lie primarily in the Southern United States.
The influence and popularity of the style waned in the 1960s, but during the late 1970s and early 1980s, rockabilly enjoyed a major revival of popularity that has endured to the present, often within a rockabilly subculture.
Rock music is a genre of popular music that developed during and after the 1960s, particularly in the United Kingdom and the United States. It has its roots in 1940s and 1950s rock and roll, itself heavily influenced by rhythm and blues and country music. Rock music also drew strongly on a number of other genres such as blues and folk, and incorporated influences from jazz, classical and other musical sources.
Musically, rock has centered around the electric guitar, usually as part of a rock group with bass guitar and drums. Typically, rock is song-based music usually with a 4/4 time signature utilizing a verse-chorus form, but the genre has become extremely diverse and common musical characteristics are difficult to define. Like pop music, lyrics often stress romantic love but also address a wide variety of other themes that are frequently social or political in emphasis. The dominance of rock by white, male musicians has been seen as one of the key factors shaping the themes explored in rock music. Rock places a higher degree of emphasis on musicianship, live performance, and an ideology of authenticity than pop music.
By the late 1960s, a number of distinct rock music sub-genres had emerged, including hybrids like blues rock, folk rock, country rock, and jazz-rock fusion, many of which contributed to the development of psychedelic rock influenced by the counter-cultural psychedelic scene. New genres that emerged from this scene included progressive rock, which extended the artistic elements; glam rock, which highlighted showmanship and visual style; and the diverse and enduring major sub-genre of heavy metal, which emphasized volume, power and speed. In the second half of the 1970s, punk rock both intensified and reacted against some of these trends to produce a raw, energetic form of music characterized by overt political and social critiques. Punk was an influence into the 1980s on the subsequent development of other sub-genres, including New Wave, post-punk and eventually the alternative rock movement. From the 1990s alternative rock began to dominate rock music and break through into the mainstream in the form of grunge, Britpop, and indie rock. Further fusion sub-genres have since emerged, including pop punk, rap rock, and rap metal, as well as conscious attempts to revisit rock's history, including the garage rock/post-punk and synthpop revivals at the beginning of the new millennium.
Rock music has also embodied and served as the vehicle for cultural and social movements, leading to major sub-cultures including mods and rockers in the UK and the "hippie" counterculture that spread out from San Francisco in the US in the 1960s. Similarly, 1970s punk culture spawned the visually distinctive goth and emo subcultures. Inheriting the folk tradition of the protest song, rock music has been associated with political activism as well as changes in social attitudes to race, sex and drug use, and is often seen as an expression of youth revolt against adult consumerism and conformity.
Progressive rock, also known as prog rock, prog-rock or simply prog, is a rock music subgenre which originated in the United Kingdom, with further developments in the United States, Germany and Italy, throughout the mid to late 1960s and 70s. Developing from psychedelic rock, progressive rock originated, similarly to art rock, as a "British attempt" to give greater artistic weight and credibility to rock music. Progressive rock intended to break the boundaries of traditional rock music by bringing in a greater and more eclectic range of influences, including free-form and experimental compositional methods, as well as new technological innovations.
Progressive rock saw a high level of popularity throughout the 1970s, especially in the mid-part of the decade, with bands such as Pink Floyd, Moody Blues, Genesis, King Crimson, Yes, Jethro Tull and Emerson, Lake & Palmer. Progressive rock started to fade in popularity by the latter part of the decade, with the rawer and more minimalistic punk rock growing in popularity; nevertheless, progressive rock bands were able to achieve commercial success well into the 1980s. By the turn of the 21st century, progressive rock witnessed a revival, often known as neo-progressive, and has, ever since, enjoyed a cult following. The genre has influenced several other styles, ranging from Krautrock to neo-classical metal; it has also fused with several other forms of rock music to create subgenres, including progressive metal.
Grebo was a United Kingdom subculture of the late 1980s and early 1990s, largely based in the English Midlands.
Influential bands in the scene were Pop Will Eat Itself (who had songs titled, "Oh Grebo I Think I Love You" and "Grebo Guru"), The Wonder Stuff, Ned's Atomic Dustbin, Carter USM and Leicester bands Crazyhead, The Bomb Party, The Hunters Club, Scum Pups and Gaye Bykers on Acid. London-based band Medicine Factory (later known as Stark) were also active on the scene in the late 80s and early 90s. The term has also been used to describe Jesus Jones, who enjoyed success in both the UK and US. The musical styles of the bands were a blend of garage rock, the more alternative forms of rock, pop, hip-hop, and electronica. The musical genre found favour with adherents of the earlier Post-punk roots of Gothic rock such as Mick Mercer which by the late 1980s had changed character significantly.
The Grebo fashion style was dreadlocks, partially shaved heads and high ponytails, undercut or shaved long hair, leather bike jackets and/or jeans, baggy clothing, boots, lumberjack shirts, loose tatty jeans, army surplus clothing, and eccentric hats and scarves.
The movement, although short-lived, was a reasonable success at the time, and influenced a number of later bands. To a certain extent it was a music press invention, much like positive punk, a scene and style named by British indie magazines, specifically NME and the Melody Maker. The scene occupied the period in the late 1980s and early 1990s before Grunge, Britpop and other forms of Anglo-American alternative rock took over.
Dark wave or darkwave is a music genre that began in the late 1970s, coinciding with the popularity of New Wave and post-punk. Building on those basic principles, dark wave added dark, introspective lyrics and an undertone of sorrow for some bands. In the 1980s, a subculture developed alongside dark wave music, whose members were called "wavers" or "dark wavers".
The term was coined in Europe in the 1980s to describe a dark and melancholy variant of New Wave and post-punk music, such as gothic rock and dark synthpop, and was first applied to musicians such as Bauhaus, Joy Division, The Cure, Siouxsie and the Banshees, and The Chameleons.